The difference between sterilization and pasteurization

  • Sterilization targets all microorganisms and vegetative spores even the hardy gram-positive ones.  Complete destruction of microorganisms is the target.  High steam temperatures are used.  After sterilization, a shelf-stable (food) product is obtained.
  • Pasteurization targets pathogens and vegetative cells. It is generally done at milder temperatures e.g. with hot water. After pasteurization, refrigeration of the product may be required to prevent spoilage.

SaniZap machines and high-temperature steam above its inversion temperature can be used for sterilization provided the correct residence time and temperature are employed.

What is sanitation, and disinfection, and how do they compare with sterilization? 

What is hygiene? 

What are MightSteam and HealthySurface?

Steam treatment of Spores in Food

Influence of Superheated Steam Temperature and Moisture Exchange on the Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus  Spores in Wheat Flour‑Coated Surfaces by Park et. al..

Food and Bioprocess Technology, Springer, 2022

Sanitation in dry food processing environments is a major challenge for the industry. The influence of superheated steam
(SH) temperatures (125 to 250 °C) on the inactivation of spores on selected coupon surfaces (stainless steel, rubber, and
concrete) coated with wheat flour as a model food soil residue was investigated using a bench scale superheating apparatus.
Wheat flour inoculated with Geobacillus stearothermophilus (7.62 ± 0.12 log CFU/g) coated on the coupon surfaces served
as the model food residue. Among the surfaces tested, temperature of concrete increased faster [time constant (τ) < 89.0
s] than that of stainless steel (τ < 173.6 s). As a consequence, wheat flour coated on concrete dehydrated faster [moisture
diffusivity (Dm) > 1.17 × 10−4 mm2/s] than those on the stainless steel (Dm > 0.76 × 10−4 mm2/s). Hence, Geobacillus
stearothermophilus spores suspended on stainless steel were inactivated faster than that of concrete and rubber (p < 0.05).
The time required for a 5-log reduction at 250 °C were 180s and 240s, on stainless steel and concrete surfaces, respectively.
A mathematical model that considered surface temperature, food residue moisture content, and SH inversion temperature
adequately described spore inactivation during SH treatment.

Hospital Acquired infections (nosocomial)

Hospital Acquired infections (nosocomial)

It is estimated that In the United States, about 1 in every 25 patients contracts a healthcare-associated nosocomial infection, leading to almost 100,000 deaths per year. (Example of source: One can Google for more articles.

Should we stop cleaning? What is clean?

Should we stop cleaning? What is clean?

There is an opinion that perhaps we should stop cleaning surfaces.  Recent NY Times article.

We respectfully disagree.

This is similar to saying we should not wash our hands or we should reduce hygiene.  We think the problem has more to do with the excessive use of toxic chemicals (yes, chemicals in concentrations are toxic).  We do not recommend UV Ultra-Violet because the damage effects of UV on human tissues and cells are cumulative.

We recommend steam.  Why Steam?  

Can biofilms be eliminated with steam – a bit of antimicrobial trivia included?

Why are the SaniZap® Generators more Efficient than Boiler type of Steam Generators?

Compare Energy Savings with Rapid Steam Techniques to remove grime and dirt.  

The History of Hygiene and Sanitation

How does one measure the hygienic quality or cleanliness of a surface? (Please click for measurement information).

HealthySurface® is a service in which surfaces are restored to, and maintained at, an original condition utilizing treatment provided by the superheated steam process and apparatus of SaniZap®.  HealthySurface® provides the removal of foreign substances from objects and surfaces to initial conditions including cleanliness, texture, or scent.  Cleanliness, as used here, may be defined as the removal of any content not initially present on a surface. Mighty steam is low oxygen above common inversion temperatures. A treatment provided by HealthySurface® will remove or reduce microbes when employed properly . However, repeated applications or other sanitation processes could be necessary to maintain these conditions on a more permanent basis. How long a microbe can live on a surface often depends on the microbe. There is no hard-and-fast rule for how long a virus can survive outside of a host (some published information is given below – see also news). The type of surface and environmental temperature and humidity all come into play. Deep-cleaning with SaniZap® is recommended particularly for reaching vegetative bacteria.

Please read below for reported information on virus residence on surfaces.  Please note that technical and microbiological information is constantly evolving.  Bayzi Corporation will continue to add to news as more information becomes commonly available.

Where do viruses and other microbes hide on surfaces

ATP reduction with with SaniZap-4 in 10 Seconds

ATP reduction with with SaniZap-4 in 10 Seconds